How to Collaborate Effectively If Your Team Is Remote

Remote communication isn’t always easy. Do you recognize yourself in any of these examples?

At 10 p.m., a corporate lawyer gets a text from a colleague and wonders (not for the first time) if there’s a protocol about work-related texts after a certain hour. 

After a long and liquid client dinner, an advertising executive opens an email from his boss reminding him to submit his expenses on time. Annoyed by this micromanagement, he immediately responds with his uncensored thoughts.

On the weekly team conference call, a remote team member is confused about whether her colleague is really on mute when she delays a response to a question or if shes just not paying attention and is using this as an excuse.

When it’s possible to be set off by a phone’s mute button, it’s safe to say that we’re living in challenging times. The digital era has ushered in a revolution in communication that’s equivalent to the one surrounding the invention of the printing press. It’s changing how we speak — often in bullet points. And it’s affecting what we hear, as the jumble of information coming at us can lead to frequent misunderstandings and confusion.

People who work on remote teams face these challenges consistently. According to recent estimates from Gallup and the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 22% of Americans work from home, while nearly 50% are involved with remote or virtual team work. This continuing shiftcalls for a new range of behaviors and skills.

Why do remote teams demand new collaboration skills? What’s missing from our texts, emails, conference calls, and other digital communications? Body language. Even when we’re co-located, the tone of a text or the formality of an email is left wide open to interpretation, to the point that even our closest friends get confused. These misinterpretations create an anxiety that can become costly, affecting morale, engagement, productivity, and innovation.

Remote communication can distort the normal pace of our conversations. The delay between our messages can often postpone or hide emotional reactions to our comments. How many times have you written an email and, immediately after hitting send, felt concerned about how it would land? Would your boss see your late night email and consider it to be an intrusion on her private time? Would she tell you if it was? While we may have become used to these types of asynchronous interactions, they can still conflict with our normal rules for social interaction. Lacking an immediate response, we can become distracted, second-guess ourselves, or even grow frustrated with our teams.

To perform at the highest levels, remote teams have to find new and better ways to operate.

First, consider that there are three kinds of distance in remote collaboration: physical (place and time), operational(team size, bandwidth and skill levels) and affinity (values, trust, and interdependency). The best way for managers to drive team performance is by focusing on reducing affinity distance. Try switching most remote communication to regular video calls, which are a much better vehicle for establishing rapport and creating empathy than either e-mails or voice calls. And design virtual team-building rituals that give people the opportunity to interact regularly and experience their collaboration skills in action.

When remote teams communicate well and leverage their strengths, they can actually gain an advantage over co-located teams. Here are some best practices to master:

Don’t conflate brief communications and clear communications: In our efforts to be efficient, we sometimes use fewer words to communicate. But such brevity can mean that the rest of the team wastes time trying to interpret your messages. (And then misinterprets them anyway.) Don’t assume that others understand your cues and shorthand. Spend the time to communicate with the intention of being ultra clear, no matter the medium. Indeed, you can never be too clear, but it is too easy to be less clear than you should.

Don’t bombard your team with messages: Do you follow up on a task by email, text and phone? Do you tend to ask people if they got your previous message? Abusing those access points can be a form of digital dominance, a relentless and uncomfortable form of harassment. The medium you choose creates different demands on the time of the receiver. Using all of them for the same message is ineffective (as well as annoying). Choose your digital volume wisely.

Establish communication norms:Remote teams need to create new norms that establish clarity in communication. Companies such as Merck have created acronyms for their digital communications like “Four Hour Response (4HR)” and “No Need to Respond (NNTR)” that bring predictability and certainty to virtual conversations. Individual teams can also establish their own norms — e.g., to use or not use Slack, Google Docs, or Whatsapp groups. And norms can also exist on an individual level, such as people’s preferred response time, writing style, and tone. For example, some individuals prefer short and quick messages, while others favor lengthy and detailed responses; people also differ in their preference and tolerance for humor and informality.

While we often tend to regard human predictability as a defect, few qualities are more sought-after at work, especially in virtual collaborations. We are all unique, but our consistent behaviors help others predict what we do, and in turn help them to understand us — and we all benefit from being understood. You can make that easier for others by establishing a clear personal etiquette and sticking to it consistently.

See the hidden opportunities in written communications: Being behind a screen can create new opportunities for certain team members, making space for those who might be less inclined to speak out in groups. Text-based communication places less importance on interpersonal skills and physical appearance, offering an effective way to share power and decision-making. Research shows that introverted individuals are less inhibited in online versus offline interactions. However, you need to watch out for virtual unconscious bias, where punctuation, grammar and word choice might reveal prejudiced attitudes towards certain groups.

And the absence of body language doesn’t necessarily mean that we’re not giving away more than we intend to when we communicate remotely. There’s still a great deal of meta-communication and virtual leakage that happens in digital environments, and it only takes paying attention to read between the lines. For example, the use of exclamation marks or a negative emoji after referring to someone’s gender, nationality, or religion is as powerful a marker of disapproval as a disgusted face.

Create intentional space for celebration: Old school birthday cakes are still important for remote teams. Creating virtual spaces and rituals for celebrations and socializing can strengthen relationships and lay the foundation for future collaboration. Find ways to shorten the affinity distance. One company we worked with celebrated new talent by creating a personal emoji for each employee who had been there for six months. You can find your own unique way to create team spaces for social connection. How you do it is less important than whether you do.

As more and more of our interactions happen digitally, we will continue to experience new forms of miscommunication and misunderstanding. The solution will not come from new technologies (although, no doubt, developers will keep trying to bridge that gap). Instead, the solution is in understanding the new rules of engagement; in building a communication skill set that reflects the demands of our digitally-driven age.

Head shot of Erica Dhawan
Head shot of Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic

Source: Harvard Business Review Feb 2018

Collaboration Overload Is Sinking Productivity

Collaborative work — time spent on email, IM, phone, and video calls — has risen 50% or more over the past decade to consume 85% or more of most people’s work weeks. The Covid-19 pandemic caused this figure to take another sharp upward tick, with people spending more time each week in shorter and more fragmented meetings, with voice and video call times doubling and IM traffic increasing by 65%. And to make matters worse, collaboration demands are moving further into the evening and are beginning earlier in the morning.

These demands, which can be invisible to managers, are hurting organizations’ efforts to become more agile and innovative. And they can lead to individual career derailment, burnout, and declines in physical and mental well-being.

In response, forward-looking organizations are taking action to protect employees from the volume of collaborative demands by employing organizational network analysis (ONA). For example:

  • Two major life sciences organizations have used network analysis to systematically analyze calendar data and identify ways to reduce redundant meeting time.
  • One global software organization has focused on email to reduce volume, length, and cc’ing redundancies.
  • A globally recognized insurance organization has employed network analysis to identify the most overwhelmed employees and educate them on practices to reduce overload.
  • And, on a more dubious front, one global services organization implemented a 60-second timeout button. After a particularly difficult time, employees can hit a button that lets others know they are taking a mindfulness break. In that 60 seconds, employees practice some aspect of mindfulness — although one must wonder if this is akin to giving a band-aid to an amputee.

This exclusive focus on quantity of collaborative demands misses two important drivers of collaborative overload: 1) the inefficiencies and subsequent cognitive switching costs of always-on cultures and 2) the personal motivations that lead us all to jump into collaborative work too quickly.

Reducing the Inefficiencies of “Always-On” Cultures 

Collaborative overload is not just a problem of volume. It has an invisible but equally sinister counterpart in cognitive switching costs created by the diversity of demands. As columnist Jennifer Senior put it in The New York Times, Covid has created an unending series of “staccato pulses of two-minute activities” for work and home that many are struggling to manage. Cognitive psychologists have shown that the act of simply responding to a text can impose as much as a 64-second recovery time to get back on track. As Gloria Mark, professor of informatics at the University of California, Irvine, has shown in her research, it can take us as many as 23 minutes to get fully back on task after a slightly longer interruption. With practice, people do get better at adjusting to interruptions, but this adaptability comes at a cost: People who are frequently interrupted experience a higher workload, more stress, higher frustration, more time pressures, and have to exert more effort.

Unfortunately, Covid has driven switching costs through the roof. Meetings have moved from one hour to 30 minutes as most try to cram more collaboration into a given day. IMs have become a more frequent sources of switching costs, with exchanges carrying deeper into the night — for example, one company has seen IMs rise 52% between 6 p.m. and 12 p.m.

Our Connected Commons research over the past decade on collaborative overloadshows that more efficient collaborators — those who have the greatest impact in networks and take the least amount of time from people — are distinguished in part by how they put structure into their work to reduce the insidious cost of being “always on.” These people are able to be 18 to 24% more efficient than their peers by doing things like:

  • Blocking out reflective time based on optimal personal rhythms. For some, this means answering emails first thing in the morning and then having a two-hour block for reflective work. For others, it means doing creative work early, and answering email in three blocks of 30-minutes throughout the day.
  • Using triage rules in email. Email begets email, and we all have a tendency to want to answer the quick request that we can feel good about solving. More efficient people tend to block emails into different categories to process them at a given point in time, rather than allowing constant disruptions.
  • Using “standing” meetings to make team problem-solving happen faster. More efficient leaders use weekly touch points to discuss one-off issues, rather than allowing excess disruptions to occur ad hoc. Team members post issues on collaboration platforms like Slack or Microsoft Teams, and the team is encouraged to solve what they can ahead of meetings. Over time, leaders find that the number of one-off issues funneling through them declines substantially as the team gets better at knowing who to turn to for what.

Organizational Actions That Can Reduce Switching Costs 

There’s a lot that companies can do at an organizational level to reduce the inefficiencies of switching costs to enable employees to succeed. For example, when the Covid pandemic began, tools like Zoom and Slack became increasingly important methods of collaboration. Uber tracked the usage of these tools and saw: 1) a 40% increase in meetings and a 45% increase in the average number of participants per meeting; 2) a greater than 3x increase in Zoom meetings and Slack messages. These interactions resulted in a 30% decrease in focus time (defined as two-plus hours per day of uninterrupted time that can be dedicated to a task or project). Meanwhile, the team at Uber discovered a strong relationship between employees’ amount of focus time and their productivity, as measured in employee surveys. The data showed a collaborative overload “trap” in which people schedule and participate in more meetings to be more productive. These meetings have the effect of displacing focus time, which as a result can actually make employees less productive.

Uber found that employees were able to take more control over their workloads, and improve their feelings of well-being, when they had both the insights and the tools they needed to be successful. The company is addressing collaborative overload through a two-pronged approach of information and enablement. For example, the company ran an experiment in late 2020 where they communicated the impact of focus time on productivity (along with tips for how to increase it) to a group of employees and then compared their focus time to employees who did not get this information. Focus time improved moderately for the informed group. In another experiment, they deployed an application that helped employees define the amount of focus time they needed, and then optimized their calendars for them by moving and managing meetings accordingly (working much like a virtual executive assistant). This led to about a 20% increase in focus time in the experiment group.

While still a work in progress, Uber’s experiments are showing that it takes both information and enablement to combat collaborative overload. Insights are necessary to provide employees with the context for action, but are not sufficient by themselves because they don’t provide a channel for action.  Specific interventions — such as focus time applications and workspace design — can enable more effective collaboration, but employees may not utilize them fully if they don’t understand the context behind why they are important. It takes both tools and context to make a real difference.

As they progress into 2021, Uber is pairing information with enablement to help its workforce collaborate more effectively, to increase their performance and improve their well-being. The company is incorporating insights and tips about collaboration (sourced from their people analytics and other teams) into company-wide meetings and communications, manager development resources, and employee newsletters. At the same time, they are continuing to enable their teams with tools and applications.

The Enemy Is Also in The Mirror

Disruptions and switching costs are not the only drivers of collaborative overload that companies are missing when they focus only on the volume of collaborative demands. Another critical source of overload comes from the personal motivations that result in each of us — far more than we realize or like to admit — creating our own collaborative overload problems by jumping in unnecessarily. When people talk about collaborative overload, they inevitably blame culprits such as out-of-control email, back-to-back meetings, demanding clients, and unreasonable bosses. But our research has shown that about 50% of the time, the main culprit of our overload can be found by looking in the mirror.

We all jump into too many collaborations, which happens in micro-moments when a request is made or when we see an opportunity that we know we could help with, even when we know we shouldn’t. Most people have had the experience of being asked to do something and knowing with every fiber of their being that they should say no, but in a nano-second convince themselves why they need to do this thing after all. They jump in and then wonder six weeks later why they never have time for work that interests them.

Our survey work over the past decade shows this to be the most significant driver of personal collaborative overload — and the hardest tendency to change. We are triggered to jump in by deep motivations and ways of working that we have learned since grade school. And the reality is that collaborative overload is insidious. It feels good, like we matter and are in the thick of things — right up until it doesn’t.

Our research has found some common motivators — what we call “identity triggers” — that lead many into trouble. The key is to identify your personal trigger and develop a mantra in the moment to keep you from jumping in. One successful Silicon Valley executive, who has a deep servant-based mindset and desire to help, learned to repeat: “Saying yes means saying no,” (to something else, that is). Another successful consumer products leader who thrived on accomplishments would ask: “Am I the only one uniquely qualified to address this issue?” People need to guard against:

  • Identity and reputation triggerssuch as a desire to help others, a sense of fulfillment from accomplishments, a desire to be influential/recognized, or a concern about being seen as a good colleague and contributor.
  • Anxiety and the need for control triggers such as fear of losing control of a project or outcome, a need for closure, dislike for ambiguity, and fear of missing out (FOMO).

Organizational Actions That Can Reduce Self-Driven Overload

General Mills has shown how forward-looking organizations can help employees combat anxiety-driven overload. The move to remote work during the pandemic presented a unique challenge for General Mills. Not only were employees getting used to this new way of working, but demand for General Mills’ core products went through the roof as grocery store shelves emptied due to panic buying.

This created a collaborative context unlike anything the company had experienced in the past. The average time employees spent per week in collaboration at the start of March 2020 was 21.4 hours (based on internal General Mills data from Microsoft Workplace Analytics). By the end of July, average hours spent in collaboration had increased to 25.7 hours per week — an increase of 20%.

When the company combined this collaboration data with employee experience data, they noticed that negative employee sentiment was also increasing during this time.  As a result, they were able to understand and take corrective actions to keep stress and burnout from continuing to accelerate.

One specific example, focusing on manufacturing and front-line employees, was branded as “Take Care Tuesday.” This weekly effort provided targeted, prioritized, and focused reminders to all leaders to help support overall well-being and team dynamics. Each targeted message focused on what a leader needs “to know” and quick tips on what “to do” — with the focus rotating each week from taking care of yourself, to taking care of others, to taking care of the business. For example, a recent Take Care Tuesday message —“Take Care of the Business” — reminded leaders “to know” that clear and consistent communication is essential during times of change and offered these tips of things “to do”:

  1. Tell a story that enables others to envision where we need to be and where we currently are
  2. Continue to capture hearts and minds by sharing why you think the change is important. and
  3. Allow time for questions and reflections.

These straightforward reminders, with practical action steps and links to additional resources on a regular cadence have been well-received by leaders and employees.

This was an important step. At that point in the Covid evolution, most organizations were more concerned with engaging virtual employees by piling on more meetings and emails. In contrast, General Mills had appropriate analytics in place to know this would have absolutely been the wrong thing to do — the correlation between fragmented time and both negative mood and employee fatigue was .55, meaning there was a very significant impact of collaborative overload on employee well-being.

The solution was to help people structure time differently, rather than invite them to more meetings. While this is not the sole, silver-bullet solution, General Mills is continuing to use data to help teams and individuals better manage the shifting nature of collaborative demands, especially as new teams are preparing for a more hybrid and flexible work environment.

Three key actions emerged from these analytic insights:

  • The implementation of a “Free-Form Fridays” policy. Employees were instructed to leave their calendars blocked starting at 2:00pm every Friday, to provide dedicated space to engage in “deep work,” catch-up on emails, and recharge.
  • The initiation of more frequent pulse surveys focused on wellbeing and stress. Targeted actions emerged from a rapid cadence of employee listening. One action taken because of these surveys was more frequent, visible reminders from senior leadership to employees about the importance of prioritizing only the most important work and focusing on self-care. As an example, many senior leaders turned to video messages and a more frequent cadence of unscripted and authentic dialogue with their teams (and the company), in which they emphasized the need for prioritization, self-care, and a test-and-learn mindset.
  • The development and deployment of Ways of Working” training and tools for units with high levels of collaboration, stress, and negative mood. The “Ways of Working” interventions began by briefing leaders on the state of collaboration and mood among employees, and starting a dialogue about how the organization might act differently. Then, group sessions were held for each unit, teaching more effective practices and ways to guard against personally-driven collaborative overload.

As a result of these initiatives, General Mills was able to effectively mitigate the risks of collaborative overload increasing during their Covid work-from-home period that is still in effect. For units that received the dedicated “Ways of Working” sessions, results have been especially promising. On average, these General Mills teams have reduced collaboration time by eight hours per employee, per week. At the same time, these groups are reporting reductions in non-value-added meetings, and more organized meetings in general — all without any negative effects on stress levels or moods. Additionally, the lessons learned from these teams are being integrated into new team launches and broader team effectiveness work aimed at supporting employee well-being and helping all teams at General Mills to be more effective collaborators.

Looking Forward

Employees at all levels are feeling the strain of collaborative overload and there is no end in sight as we transition into a post-pandemic world of work. When they’re appropriately applied, analytics can help identify significant efficiencies in this hyper-connected world of work. Leading organizations that equip their employees to work more efficiently in this context will have an important advantage in terms of both performance and retention.

Head shot of Rob Cross

Source: Harvard Business Review Sep 2021

Montelukast in hospitalized patients diagnosed with COVID-19

Ahsan R Khan et al. J Asthma. 2021.


Objective: Several therapeutic agents have been assessed for the treatment of COVID-19, but few approaches have been proven efficacious. Because leukotriene receptor antagonists, such as montelukast have been shown to reduce both cytokine release and lung inflammation in preclinical models of viral influenza and acute respiratory distress syndrome, we hypothesized that therapy with montelukast could be used to treat COVID-19. The objective of this study was to determine if montelukast treatment would reduce the rate of clinical deterioration as measured by the COVID-19 Ordinal Scale.

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of COVID-19 confirmed hospitalized patients treated with or without montelukast. We used “clinical deterioration” as the primary endpoint, a binary outcome defined as any increase in the Ordinal Scale value from Day 1 to Day 3 of the hospital stay, as these data were uniformly available for all admitted patients before hospital discharge. Rates of clinical deterioration between the montelukast and non-montelukast groups were compared using the Fisher’s exact test. Univariate logistic regression was also used to assess the association between montelukast use and clinical deterioration. A total of 92 patients were analyzed, 30 who received montelukast at the discretion of the treating physician and 62 patients who did not receive montelukast.

Results: Patients receiving montelukast experienced significantly fewer events of clinical deterioration compared with patients not receiving montelukast (10% vs 32%, p = 0.022). Our findings suggest that montelukast associates with a reduction in clinical deterioration for COVID-19 confirmed patients as measured on the COVID-19 Ordinal Scale.

Conclusions: Hospitalized COVID-19 patients treated with montelukast had fewer events of clinical deterioration, indicating that this treatment may have clinical activity. While this retrospective study highlights a potential pathway for COVID-19 treatment, this hypothesis requires further study by prospective studies.

Keywords: COVID-19; hypoxemia; leukotriene; montelukast; viral infection.

“Normalizing vs. analyzing: Drawing the lessons from failure to enhance firm innovativeness”

by Erwin Danneels & Alex Vestal. in Journal of Business Venturing (2020)


• Calls into question the common recommendation to embrace failure in order to promote firm innovation

• Distinguishes two ways in which organizations cope with failure: (tolerance) and reflection (analysis)

• Only analysis promotes innovation, contingent on constructive conflict.

Executive summary

The popular business press and academic articles have promoted the virtues of failure, particularly in the pursuit of innovation. Surprisingly, there has been very little systematic empirical study to support this belief. This article distinguishes two organizational approaches to failure: normalizing it (tolerating failure as a necessary part of the innovation process) and analyzing it (purposeful attempts to convert failure experiences into knowledge). A longitudinal study of 106 U.S. manufacturing firms indeed finds that mere tolerance for failure has no effect on firm product innovativeness. In contrast, firms that make deliberate efforts to analyze past failures introduce more innovative new products. Further, this effect is contingent on a climate of constructive conflict within the firm. Hence, to foster firm innovativeness, organization members need to extract lessons from failure, and such analysis must take place in a climate of constructive conflict that enables open and honest discussion.

What did they study?

In order to grow in the rapidly changing business environment, companies are emphasizing entry into innovative business areas, or product and service innovation, but achieving innovation requires many challenges, and most of them fail is inevitable. It is not true.​

As it is said that’every failure is a stepping stone to success’, many scholars and entrepreneurs alike stress the importance of failure. Of course, failure means when the intended target value is not reached, but it is not the result intentionally obtained for future success.​

How should you approach this failure? Previous studies have made implicit assumptions. The experience of failure, of course, provides an opportunity for learning, and when we gratefully accept this opportunity for learning and view failure within the organization, it leads to success.​

In this paper, we question the assumption that the experience of failure mentioned above automatically plays a positive role in future success. First of all, the authors looked at two approaches to dealing with failure.​

First, it is a’Normalizing’ method that does not make any punishment for unavoidable failures from the organizational side, and does not mention past failures, and simply continues with new challenges. In other words, tolerate failure simply as a good learning experience.​

Second, it is a way to tolerate failure, but to thoroughly analyze the cause of failure and find ways to improve it. This is referred to by the authors as the’Analyzing’ method.​

Of course, this approach can lead to more active learning through failure, but it can be overwhelming for companies to use it. This is because during this analysis process, aggressive voices may come out about the competencies of the members who participated in the failed project, which may lead to rejection of new innovation projects in the future.​

This study examines how the’Normalizing’ and’Analyzing’ methods of failed projects have an impact on the success of future innovation projects. In addition, this study attempted to confirm that the above relationship can be different depending on how tolerant the corporate culture is to the critical discussion method.

What did they discover?

This study was based on a total of 108 listed companies based in the manufacturing industry in the United States, and was conducted over a two-year period in 2007 and 2009. These companies have an average number of employees of 4200 and boast 38 years of corporate history. And the average sales was about 950 billion won per year. In the future, the innovation of the project was confirmed by the competitive advantage and differentiation of the product compared to other companies’ products. And the “Normalizing” method was confirmed by how tolerant of the project failure, and the’Analyzing’ method was to ensure that the company systematically responded to failure. Through the analysis, we measured the conversion of experience into knowledge Finally, we checked the ease of use of the critical discussion method in the corporate culture.​

Through this, the researchers were able to confirm the following results. First, companies that did not have a systematic analysis of project failure showed no progress in terms of future innovation. Second, through the analysis of failure, it was confirmed that companies that used the experience of failure as more active learning showed high innovation in future projects. Lastly, it was found that the’Analyzing’ method has a stronger effect on future innovation, the easier it is for mutually critical discussions and more familiar companies.​

What lessons do the findings teach?

Taking the results of the above research together, this assumption that we accept extremely simply, that learning is achieved through experience and that these experiences are helpful for future development may be wrong. This study has shown that continuing only new challenges without systematic analysis of failures does not significantly contribute to future innovation performance.​

In other words, the experience of failure does not automatically lead to learning. Only if there is an active analysis of the experience of failure will help in future development. If you try to hide failure and simply regard failure as a valuable experience, then the findings of this study that failure will not help future development have great implications for not only existing companies seeking innovation, but also entrepreneurs seeking to create new ones. . However, if critical debate within a company is a culture that is uncomfortable, another result of this study that the analysis method for failure does not have a big effect can be said to remind us of the importance of a tolerant organizational culture.

DoingA Business Review

The School of Life “How to Worry Less About Money”

Author: John Armstrong
Author John Armstrong is a professor and philosopher at the Melbourne Business School and served as Vice-Chancellor of the University of Melbourne. He has written several books on art, aesthetics, and philosophy. Among them, this book is evaluated as a masterpiece that showed new insights on money based on his extensive and extensive knowledge of the humanities and business administration he has accumulated throughout his life.

The most philosophical and cultural interpretation of money!
The philosophy of money that gives a sense of freedom and happiness!

What is money for you? Is it just a means of survival-an absolute condition for happiness? Or is there mana? Only one is clear. The more money you have, the more you can have what you want. So money is a matter of dying and living. That’s why we love and hate money. One minute and one second of city life is returned to money, and consumption activities give excitement comparable to orgasm. It is money that puts an end to life at the gambling table, and it is money that saves hungry children in Africa. The money that gives us a taste of heaven and hell, maybe making and spending money is all we do in our lifetime.

About money and life, survival and desire
The noble and pleasant quest begins!

What is money, the most spectacular power that moves the world? Is it just a synonym for desire, lack, and worry? What perspective and philosophy should we have on money that governs our emotions, actions, and relationships? Have you ever thought about the following problems? Between money and life, money and happiness, a very surprising new insight unfolds about the meaning and value of money, the joy of money, and everything that money can achieve.

-What does it mean to have a good relationship with money in your life?
-Is a poor environment a disaster or a blessing with a noble spirit?
-How does money balance love, sex and relationships?
-What can we do to escape from the wounds of money and domination of money?
-Need vs. Desire, price vs. How do values ​​change the standard of life?
-Consumption with pride and dignity, human commercialization, and noble industrialization potential.
-The reality of instinctive denial, longing and fear about money.
-Can you live a meaningful life while making a lot of money?
-Can’t it be replaced with something else, the consumption addiction caused by mental hunger and anxiety?
-How much money does our life actually need?
-Can money make the world a better place?
-How does money manipulate us and scare us?
-I shop, so I exist. Is consumption an instinct or an addiction?

So the essence of the money philosophy is
This is a reflection on human desires divided into various forms!

Professor John Armstrong, who is a professor and philosopher at Melbourne Business School, explained in a warm and witty writing that combines business administration and philosophy, explaining needs and desires, price and value, and ideal desire beyond living. Like a psychological counselor, he opens his mind and shares his concerns with readers by frankly confessing his economic situation. Not only the basic emotions of money, such as possessiveness, desire to show off, fear, and sense of accomplishment, but also the desire to subdue human relationships with the power of money or take revenge on someone, as if with a counselor, a pleasant chat is poured out.

It also shows in a very elegant way how you can blow away your frustrations of money and your fear of poverty. The ethics of money, the graceful commercialization, the moral right of the pleasures of money, the unfulfilled hunger and uncontrollable debauchery, the dignity and dignity that fall helplessly in front of money, etc. It will completely change your feelings, attitudes, and beliefs about money, and ultimately rediscover what’s really important in life.

[Introduction to Life School]
School in the middle of life! Life school

How should we look at and respond to the various problems we face in our lives and the problems we face in every important moment in our lives?- If what we have learned so far is’knowledge’, now is the time to learn’wisdom’. Life School proposes fundamental inquiries and philosophical thinking about topics that must be considered at least once for a full and balanced life, sex, money, work, spirit, world, and time. The insights and wisdom extracted from these six core themes that dominate every moment of life will enhance the quality of life and add depth to everyday thought.

“The School of Life” first opened in London in 2008. Under the catchphrase “Learning back in the middle of life!”, a lecture, discussion, mentoring, and community service on the meaning of life, skills in life, and various problems encountered in life, centered on the world’s best-selling author Alain de Common. It is a’global project’ that provides such. He is particularly famous for his unstoppable subject consciousness, his unique perspective that penetrates the essence, and his lectures and discussions that elicit intelligent and clear answers.

It is spreading not only to the UK and the United States, but also to Sweden, the Netherlands, Brazil, Australia, and Turkey, and is drawing a great response from readers from around the world who have longed for a true “life school”. Alain de Commone became the planner and editor of the whole series and compiled each subject into a book.

Your relationship with money includes imagination, values, emotions, attitudes, ambitions, fears, and memories. It’s not just a matter of how much you earn and how much you spend, a pure economic matter. It’s not just a matter of addition and subtraction, so how much money you have isn’t the solution we expect. In other words, addressing money worries with the amount of money (whether increasing income or struggling with less) is not an ideal strategy. The important thing is to deal with your relationship with money and your feelings about the relationship. Your relationship with money includes imagination, values, emotions, attitudes, ambitions, fears, and memories. It’s not just a matter of how much you earn and how much you spend, a pure economic matter. It’s not just a matter of addition and subtraction, so how much money you have isn’t the solution we expect. In other words, addressing money worries with the amount of money (whether increasing income or struggling with less) is not an ideal strategy. The important thing is to deal with your relationship with money and your feelings about the relationship. — A Good Relationship with Money

Think more specifically about why money is a problem. For example, to maintain a relationship with my parents, I have to pay money out of my bank account, and to beat a friend who has been competing since childhood, I need to earn more than that now. However, these distorted thoughts eventually lead to failure in the relationship with money. Past experiences should not influence the financial problems of the present.
Strictly speaking, money is a neutral tool for exchange, nothing more or less. Money itself is nothing, it simply records the degree of debt and credit. However, as we have seen earlier, money takes on a variety of psychological aspects. In extreme cases, someone may deify money. This is not a dimension of explicit belief. In the way that person thinks, feels, and acts, it is important that the’deification of money’ is revealed implicitly.
On the other hand, some people view money as evil. Such people feel that they have to fail economically, and they try to justify them through such failures. Of course, the price of that justification is overly expensive. — When money is not money

When talking about personal experiences with money, almost everyone reveals a very typical wish about the house they want to live in. Think about what you really wanted. It will whisper to you like this. You’ll be really happy with it. You and the people you love must have it to succeed. But it makes you very anxious. Because you know you can never have it.
In a way, it’s an extremely valid and wonderful dream. Putting the real estate price aside for a while, what I drew in my head is a very classy and appropriate scene showing a happy family. It is never greedy or extravagant. Your wife and children will also want to move there. That atmosphere and environment are perfect for my family. — Envy as Education

There is something important in life that gives a strong sense of ‘necessary in my life’. Whether it is an object or a person, it is not unfounded greed. Don’t I have the values ​​of life that I take seriously and that support my life? That “something important” will create an environment that embodies the values ​​of my life. I acknowledged the special strength and role of the table, and gave the meaning of the table to my life.
But I decided that I couldn’t afford to buy the table. But I didn’t want to give up even the heart I wanted to have. Just because I couldn’t afford it, I didn’t want to ignore it because having it (or not having it) wasn’t a big deal.
This is a pretty important issue. We must understand that the problem of’needs and desires’ does not necessarily lead to’medium and refined’ or’cheap and expensive’. What is the reason? This is because the distinction between’need and desire’ is a psychological problem related to the individual’s success or the pursuit of the highest self. Do you think needs are basic and needs are refined? no. ‘Basic and sophisticated’ is the difference in degree to the complexity of an object. ‘Cheap and expensive’ is also a distinction related to price or demand. — Need vs. Want

‘Price’ is an open thing set by a negotiation between supply and demand. In some cases, it is decided through competition. For example, the price of a car is determined by how many people want it, how much they can pay, and how much the manufacturer is willing to sell. This is an open activity. While many people are directly or indirectly involved in the process, your voice isn’t very important in setting a price.
On the other hand, value is personal, ethical, and aesthetic judgment. Ultimately determined by the individual and based on his perception, wisdom, and character. So you can define the size of the value yourself.
How much value is determined by the quantitative concept of money? What is the value return? We know that the number of cases varies enormously. Some people create great experiences for relatively little money. They have a fantastic holiday, enjoy fun entertainment, and own interesting paintings or fancy furniture that they want to steal. But the money you spend there is far less than you can imagine. It is to enjoy such pleasure with a small budget. These people are usually characterized by being witty and adept at being adept. They don’t even try to save money. Of course, you can do it as much as you like. — Price vs. Value

Having a lot of money also means less restrictive behavior. Rich people can easily do what they want. By the way, it’s a bit terrible, but it usually causes their own misfortune. Living well with desire is a very imperfect relationship. Desire aims for pleasure. On the other hand, living well depends on the good we create. Every opportunity to pursue a desire lies on the opposite side of effort, concentration, dedication, patience, and self-sacrifice to achieve a worthy purpose.
There are also many people with the financial ability to dine at the finest restaurants every day and drink two bottles of champagne. However, if they want to live a life of dignity, they must refrain from doing that, so they must fight temptation every day. Luxurious restaurants or expensive champagnes may feel very attractive right now. But they don’t mean anything. You can also take a private plane every day and go anywhere you want. But what is the purpose of doing so? Why? They may always suffer from these concerns. ‘I’m going to sleep in Venice tonight. no. I think Paris would be better. Then shall we go to Paris?’

No matter how much you have, you may still lack something. ‘My private jet is too small. My island looks weird. I need a happy family and 21 governments. If I don’t like it, I want to ruin him. Of course I can. The state is trying to take my money. I can’t trust my lawyers and financial advisors. They are only interested in taking money away from me.’

No Rules Rules: Netflix and the Culture of Reinvention

Author: Reed Hastings

After co-founding Netflix with MARC RANDOLPH in 1997, he has been the CEO since 1999. Netflix, which started as a DVD rental business, changed its business to internet streaming service in 2007, and started to produce dramas starting with 〈House of Cards〉 in 2013, and is showing disruptive innovation in line with the trend of the times. Lead Hastings, who led the business at the center, was ranked No. 1, the Company of the Year by in 2010, and is called “Post Jobs” as it caused a shift in the entertainment industry. He graduated from Borden College and received a master’s degree in artificial intelligence from Stanford University, while serving as a volunteer teacher in Swaziland, South Africa (now Swatini) as a member of the Peace Corps. He has been actively involved in education-related nonprofit activities in California for four years since 2000, and has held board positions at several educational institutions including Dreambox Learning, KIPP, and PAHARA.

Author: Erin Meyer

Professor at INSEAD, the world’s leading business school. She has written articles such as Harvard Business Review, The New York Times, and Forbes that provide cutting-edge strategies and tactics for global leaders to interpret the diversity and complexity of cultures and to work efficiently across cultural differences. Her in particular, 《THE CULTURE MAP》, which she wrote based on her in-depth research on this, has become a bestseller. She earned her MBA degree from Insead in 2004, and she served as a volunteer teacher in South Africa as a member of the Peace Corps. She was named one of the world’s most influential business thinkers in 2019 by THINKERS50.

Endless innovation, faster speed than anyone else, the best talent…
“Our rival is human’sleep time’!”

Netflix was ranked 1st in the ‘Company with the Happiest Employees’ and No. 1 in the U.S. in 2019 by technical workers in 2018. It is reported as a company that recently recorded the highest growth rate in the pandemic and benefited from a business model suitable for an untouched (non-contact, non-face-to-face) society, but Netflix has long been called the’pronoun of disruptive innovation’. Netflix, which broke away from the DVD rental business and started Internet streaming services, bought copyrights for various TV programs and movies and provided them to consumers around the world, and became an entertainment company by becoming a large producer who directly produces high-quality video content. And in 2019, they said. “Our rival is human’sleep time’!”

What is the secret that Netflix was able to transform lightly and at a very fast pace whenever the market changed? Reed Hastings, co-founder and current CEO of Netflix, promotes their own corporate culture of “Freedom and Responsibility (F&R)” that requires no rules. There are literally no rules on Netflix! This means there are no tricky procedures or regulations that will reduce the momentum and efficiency of work. He stresses that what companies or teams need in today’s information age is not error prevention or exact replication, but creativity, speed of innovation, and agility. What is the biggest risk that threatens the survival of companies in this era? Reed affirms. They are not able to attract the best talent, to come up with new products, and to quickly change direction when the environment changes.

Erin Meyer, one of the world’s most influential business thinkers and co-author of this book by Thinkers50 in 2019, agrees that Netflix’s exceptional success is due to their ‘weirder’ corporate culture. After collecting the best players with the best treatment in the industry, they raise their salaries to match the market value, while maintaining a high “talent density”. Since then, by introducing a culture of honest feedback, various regulations and controls are removed so that employees can make the best decisions without seeing anyone. This way of operation has enabled innovation faster than anyone else. Professor Meyer interviewed more than 200 former and current Netflix employees over a two-year period to analyze their culture. The reality of Netflix’s success, which has never been known by countless companies and media outlets that have studied and explored their culture outside Netflix, is unveiled in 『No Rules』.

“Don’t keep eagles in cages!”
Netflix’s unique ecosystem incredibly flexible

Creativity and innovation. It is a word that appears without falling into the “success factor” of not only companies in this era, but also individuals. The problem is that even though the company is packed with talented people who work efficiently with extraordinary creativity, many organizations offset the strengths of their employees by establishing controls and regulations that would only work in the industrial era. He traps an eagle trying to soar into the sky in a cage.

Reed Hastings decided to run Netflix completely differently, taking lessons from his failures in “Pure Software,” which he first founded. It was decided to remove the bureaucratic controls and procedures that were striking the wings of talented people. There are more than 10 rules and procedures that most companies do, but Netflix does not. For example, these are things.

Vacation regulations | Cost regulations | Approval process | Travel rules | Contract approval | Salary grade
Decision approval | Performance improvement plan | Impression pool | Key Performance Indicators | Goal management method
Decision-making by the committee | Salary band | Bonus based on performance

Netflix doesn’t have a set vacation period. There is no need to wait for the approval of the boss to proceed with the planned item or whether to make a contract with the company. There is also no regulation on how much money can be spent on business trips and how much can be purchased without payment when purchasing company goods. There is no annual salary standard for each position, but what is certain is that it is the highest in the industry. Of course, there are no performance bonuses. This is because it already gives a salary that exceeds the bonus. It is in the judgment that the best ideas and creativity emerge when humans are first guaranteed a certain reward.

Without rules or procedures, you may be concerned that you may be running too lazy and some employees will abuse them. Of course, the expense has increased by about 10% compared to the standard payment system, but in the words of Reed Hastings, this is nothing compared to the benefits that can be obtained without the rules. Because of this, Netflix has become the company that star players want to work for, and through them, it has become an innovator that moves incredibly fast and incredibly flexible!

R&P and F&R, your choice?
Fun like Netflix, their management method

The two authors of 『No Rules』 exchange stories with insightful perspectives and clear brushstrokes, and continue their arguments using abundant examples of actual Netflix former and current employees. Part 1 is the first step to a culture of freedom and responsibility, building talent density by securing talented employees first, introducing a culture of honest feedback that allows you to tell your thoughts as they are, then approving vacation rules and travel and expenses. It guides you to remove the control by removing it. Part 2 is the next step to a culture of freedom and responsibility, with industry-leading rewards to strengthen talent density, to promote a culture of honesty with transparent management that is open to everything, and to ensure that no decision-making needs to be approved. Lets get rid of control. Part 3 introduces how to strengthen a culture of freedom and responsibility, maximizing talent density through keeper testing, maximizing honesty through the use of feedback circles, and removing most controls by providing context rather than control. In the final 4th part, we will introduce a culture map as cultural awareness that a global company that pioneers overseas markets on the world stage must have.

In the industrial era that has created wealth for the past 300 years, a culture of “rules and process” (R&P) that controls the movement of employees has been in force. This is the way we all know it, and the vast majority of businesses around the world still operate like this. But after reading this book you will find that you can do the same with the F&R method. The choice is up to us. What is clear is that in an environment where intellectual property rights and creative services are the basis of growth, the proportion of economies that rely on fostering creativity and innovation has become much larger, and this trend will accelerate.

Do you want to build and run an excellent organization? Are you looking for ways to attract the best talent? Do you want to stand out in the techno field? Would you like to know what it takes to innovate and leap forward in your company? Just wondering how Netflix people, recognized as the world’s top value companies, work and what skills they need to be able to join a global company? Whatever you are wondering about, in this book you will find surprisingly clear answers. Most of all, a tough business book is just as fun as a Netflix original movie!

There was one thing we didn’t have in the blockbuster. It was a culture that values ​​people over procedures, emphasizes innovation over efficiency, and controls control as much as possible. Thanks to a corporate culture that focuses on delivering the best performance based on’talent density’ and leading employees in a context rather than control, we will continue to grow and seek change together as the world changes. Could. Accordingly, the demands of our members have also transformed with us. Netflix is ​​different. In our culture, it is a rule that there are no rules.
— 「Introduction」

We trained our managers to fire employees who did undesirable behaviors or did not perform exemplary. From the lobby’s receptionists to senior executives, I’ve worked hard to fill Netflix with some of the best performing yet collaborative staff in the field. This is the most important point on which the Netflix story is based. Fast and innovative workplaces are made up of so-called “extraordinary colleagues”. Extraordinary colleagues from diverse backgrounds and perspectives are talented, creative, competent at important tasks, and work closely with others. If this first point is firmly established, no other principle will function.
— “Chapter 1 First Build Up Talent Density”

If I told the employee to go on vacation as I wanted, the sky would fall. But nothing changed. With exceptions, people’s satisfaction seemed to have risen a little, and there are employees who enjoy the freedom a little bit like they go to the Yanomani tribe in the Brazilian Amazon after working 80 hours for three consecutive weeks. We’ve figured out one way to allow high-performing employees to take control of their own lives. And he also confirmed that such control makes everyone more free. Due to the high talent density, our employees were already acting with a sense of conscience and responsibility. Since an honest culture has been established, if someone reverses the system or abuses the given freedom, people around him pointed it out and corrected the situation.
— 「Chapter 3-1 Remove Vacation Policy」

The fact that one best player outperformed other programmers caused a big ripple in the software industry as a whole. Executives wanted to figure out how much higher value a top programmer would have than their average peers. There was a method of hiring 10 to 25 engineers with moderate skills at a reasonable wage, and a method of hiring one “rock star” for a large sum. After choosing, through several examples, I was able to confirm the true value of a rock star. The best programmer’s value wasn’t about 10 times that of a moderately skilled programmer. They were worth more than 100 times. When he took on Microsoft’s board of directors and had the opportunity to work with Bill Gates, Bill said more than that. There is a passage that is frequently cited in his story. “Great turners are paid several times more than ordinary turners. But a great software programmer is worth 10,000 times more than an average programmer.”
— 「Chapter 4 Pay Top of Personal Market」

Typically, a company’s boss exists to approve or reject the employee’s decision. This is the surest way to stop innovation and slow growth. At Netflix, even though the managers think they are decent, if they think they are right, they are pushing to put them into practice. We don’t want the manager to put aside a subordinate or someone’s good ideas because they don’t recognize them. So Netflix says: ‘Don’t try to match your boss’s stomach. Do what is most beneficial to the company.’ There is one thing people are mistaken. The myth is that CEOs and senior executives are deeply involved in the details of the business, making their products or services better. People think that Apple’s iPhone was a success thanks to Steve Jobs’ involvement in everything until his last name. This is also a misunderstood story.
— Chapter 6 Now Release More Controls

We also encourage all managers to always think about their subordinates and make them the best in their positions. The’keeper test’ was devised so that managers can judge wisely in their own way. ‘If one of the team members said that they would quit tomorrow, would you persuade them to think about it again, or would you mind resolving the letter of resignation with good luck? If it’s the latter, pay him a severance pay right now and find a star player. Someone who has to stick with it anyway.’ Netflix is ​​trying to apply the Keeper test to everyone. We ourselves are no exception. Would the company be better if someone else does my job? The reason for doing this is not to be embarrassed when sending someone out. Consider a hockey team competing in the Olympics. It’s a pity to get a player out of the team, but fans and others will praise it as a decision that only people with the guts and abilities to make the team strong can make. — 「Chapter 7 Keeper Test」

Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind

Author: Yuval Harari
Author Yuval Noah Harari was born in Haifa, Israel, and received a doctorate in medieval war history at Oxford University in England in 2002. His majors are medieval history and war history, the relationship between history and biology, whether justice exists in history, and whether people have become happier than in the past as history progresses. His research on world history began to attract attention as it became known through videos such as YouTube, and more than 80,000 people around the world are taking his classes. In 2009 and 2012, he was awarded the’POLONSKY PRIZE FOR CREATIVITY AND ORIGINALITY IN THE HUMANISTIC DISCIPLINES’, and in 2012, he was awarded the’THE YOUNG ISRAELI ACADEMY OF SCIENCES’. Was selected.

Sapiens, the result of long-standing research in anthropology, sociology, biology, etc. It became a bestseller.


From the distant human origin to the cyborg,
The birth, progress, and future of mankind read in one volume!

There is a book that shook the publishing world and the media around the world last year and this year. The impact of a book by a young Israeli scholar, almost unknown, was enormous. Not only the Western world such as the United States, the United Kingdom, France, and Germany, but also Latin America such as Brazil, China and Taiwan and Asia, many people have read this book, it has become a bestseller, has been selected as a book of the year or awarded a publication award.

Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg recommended it as a book to read together at the book club, and scholars and celebrities from various fields, including Jared Diamond, Damian Hearst, and Henning Mankell, recommended reading without hesitation. It is a story of the origin, development, and evolution of mankind, but the vast story that crosses the boundaries of academics such as anthropology, economics, biology, psychology, and discourses on happiness is attractive enough to captivate readers around the world. This is a tribute dedicated to Sapiens by Professor Yuval Noah Harari, who teaches history at the Hebrew University of Israel.

Why are so many people paying attention and enthusiasm for this book? The young author, who has just turned 40 in Korean age, has already gained popular support by communicating with more than 80,000 people around the world through internet lectures such as YouTube, TED, and MOOC.

The author’s comprehensive gaze to read the history and the amazing writing skills that elaborately unfold a vast story, the extraordinary theory that overwhelms the writing power, astounding insights, and exquisite wit and a book that can be read in the first year of college, sympathy from all generations Even the passion of wanting to write easy-to-read and easy-to-read books, the wonderful harmony of these has made thousands of people his fans, and Sapiens can be affirmed that it is the essence of Yuval Harari’s thinking that melted all this.

Cognitive revolution, agricultural revolution, scientific revolution
Will humans finally become gods

『Sapiens』 is a place where physics and chemistry emerged from the Big Bang in about 13.5 billion years, and life was created under the control of natural selection about 3.8 billion years ago, and biology was created, and about 70,000 years ago, the Homo sapiens species developed to create culture and pioneer history. The story begins at.

The author presents three great revolutions that have shaped the human path through this huge tens of thousands of years of history from the past to today. These are the cognitive revolution about 70,000 years ago, the agricultural revolution about 12,000 years ago, and the scientific revolution about 500 years ago. The scientific revolution is still part of an evolving history, and while the agricultural revolution keeps revealing new facts, the cognitive revolution is still shrouded in many parts of mystery. The language of imaginary unfolding on the basis of unfinished discoveries and meager historical records is surprisingly rational and tight enough to immerse readers.

The authors pointed to fire, backstory, agriculture, myths, money, contradictions, and science as the seven crucial catalysts in the process of historical development. By dominating fire at the beginning of the cognitive revolution, humans who have risen to the top of the food chain have formed a social community through language (back talk), and humans who have stayed in hunter-gatherers experience exponential population growth through the agricultural revolution. . The powerful weapons that control the growing population are fictional myths such as religion, class, and power (of course, it was also fictional myths that dominated the hunter-gatherer society). The development of agriculture led to an increase in wealth and settlement life, people became blind to money, and the blind faith of money caused social contradictions. The scientific revolution 500 years ago opened up a world that was completely different from before.

“This revolution may bring the end of history, or it may lead to something completely different.” (p. 19)

Humanity, which has been dominated by natural selection for 4 billion years, is now looking beyond the realm of God. What will the future look like with human intelligent design? 『Sapiens』 tells us, who live in such an important moment, what prospects for the future will come, and now is the time to have them.

Only Homo sapiens remains on the plains.

Through the moments of the numerous contradictions arising from such a long process, the author shows horrifyingly that there is no mercy in history. Through these three revolutions, humans have been constantly running, but indeed, “What effect did these three revolutions have on humans and their neighbors? That is the subject of this book” (p. 19), the author says at the beginning of the book.

The plains where at least six human species, including Homo sapiens, Neanderthals, and Homo erectus, lived 100,000 years ago, as if they were visible. The author then asks readers if they know how the Homo sapiens species survived on Earth as the only winner.

“The truth is this. From 2 million years ago to about 10,000 years ago, various human species lived on Earth at the same time. Why not? Even today, many species such as foxes, bears, and pigs live in the same era. Tens of thousands of years ago, there were at least six human species living on Earth. The weird thing here is not the fact that many species lived in the past, but rather that there is only one species now.”

Only Homo sapiens remained on the plains where Neanderthals and Homo erectus disappeared, and large fauna was wiped out by a flood wherever humans could reach. Only a few species, such as cattle, pigs, sheep, and dogs, who were forcibly obeyed by human needs, were able to increase their populations, but the lives of them industrially forced to breed are miserable and cruel. For Europeans, money was immortally attractive. Those who traveled to the New World to earn more money slaughtered Native Americans and used Africans as slaves to accumulate more capital. The ordinary Europeans who invested money in the slave industry were not evil people. I was just indifferent and ignorant. Such capital laid the foundation for the development of science and culture in the Western world, and now human science promises an immortal “Gilgamesh Project”. However, the author predicts that such technological advances will not be fair to all. A world where the rich live forever, and the poor must die. This kind of future is coming soon.

“In the next few decades, thanks to genetic engineering and bioengineering technologies, we will be able to significantly change human physiological functions, immune systems, and longevity as well as intellectual and emotional abilities. If genetic engineering can make a genius mouse, why can’t it make a genius human? If we could create a monogamous rat, why couldn’t we create a genetically natural human to be faithful to our mate for life?”

Are we happier than our hunter-gatherer ancestors?

You cannot rethink all of history with a single book. However, the history of human beings seen at a glance in 『Sapiens』 overflows with things to think about every moment you turn over the bookshelf. Of particular interest is the philosophical discussion of who is happier among the old people who had little but high expectations, and modern people who are open to potential but rarely satisfied. The author said in an interview that’humans have never been stronger than they are now, but we are not happier than our ancestors’ is one of the main messages of this book.

Why are modern humans who have advanced further and are no longer happy? In the previous period, the death rate from violence by others was high, but now Sapiens is killing himself. There are power, money, technology, but we still pursue them without knowing why. A technique that is as fascinating as it is dangerous is blasphemy itself. The author said, “We are on the path to becoming God ourselves. But we don’t know if this is what we really want.” The meanings of humanism and nationalism that human beings seek are only delusions, and even if they try to find happiness by matching individual fantasies to collective fantasies, they tell a gloomy story that this is only self-deception. However, it leaves some room. It’s been a while since we’ve started to study happiness, and the possibilities for happiness are more open.

“As far as we know, from a pure scientific point of view, human life has absolutely no meaning. Humanity is the product of a blind evolutionary process that proceeds without purpose or intention. Our actions are not part of any divine cosmic plan. Even if the planet Earth bursts tomorrow morning, the universe will probably operate as usual. At that point, as far as we know, no one will miss human subjectivity. Whatever value people attach to their lives is nothing but delusion.”

People from all over the world are struggling to have the means to access amazing new technologies. But this technology doesn’t tell us what to do with it. You can use genetic engineering, artificial intelligence, and nanotechnology to build heaven or hell. The benefits will be endless if you make a wise choice, but if you make a stupid choice, it can cost humanity extinction. Whether to make wise choices is in the hands of all of us.

People didn’t have the ability to get a holistic view of the consequences of their decisions. When deciding to do more work (…) people thought: ‘It is true that you have to work more, but the yield will increase a lot. You won’t have to worry about famine anymore. Children won’t even go to bed hungry.” That made sense. The plan was,’If you work harder, your life will be better.’ (…) People worked harder. But they couldn’t predict that the number of children would increase. The additional wheat produced had to be returned to children who grew in number. (…) So, why didn’t you give up farming when your plans went wrong? Because small changes accumulate and take many generations to change society, and by then no one remembers that they lived in different ways in the past. One reason was that the bridge to return was burned out due to population growth. Suppose that the introduction of plowing has increased the village’s population from 100 to 110. Wouldn’t there be ten of them who would choose to starve themselves voluntarily so that the rest could go back to their good times?

How to make people believe in an imaginary order such as Christianity, democracy, or capitalism? First, we must never admit that the order is the product of imagination. It must always be argued that the order that sustains society is an objective reality created by a great God or natural law. People are not equal, not because Hammurabi said that, but because Enlil and Marduk ordered so. Man is equal, not because Thomas Jefferson said that, but because God created it that way. The free market is the best economic system, not because Adam Smith said yes, but because it is an immutable natural law.

History goes from intersection to intersection, taking this route first for some unknown reason, then entering that route and then proceeding. History around 1500 made the most important choice. It was a choice to change not only the fate of mankind, but perhaps the fate of all life on Earth. We call this the scientific revolution. The revolution began in Western Europe, on a large peninsula at the western end of Afro-Asia. Until then, in an area that had never played an important role in history.

Why did the scientific revolution take place there, leaving so many places? Why didn’t it happen in China or India? Why did it happen in the middle of the second millennium, not two or three centuries before reality? We don’t know Scholars have come up with a dozen theories, but no one is particularly plausible.

The core of the industrial revolution was the revolution of energy transformation. The Industrial Revolution has repeatedly demonstrated that there is no limit to the energy we can use. More precisely, it showed that the only limit is our ignorance. Just every few decades new sources of energy were discovered, and thanks to that, the total amount of energy we could use continued to grow. Still, why are so many people afraid of running out of energy? Why is it warned that if available fossil fuels run out, catastrophe will come? Clearly, there is no energy deficit in the world. What is lacking is the knowledge needed to find energy and convert it to fit our needs.

Let My People Go Surfing

Author: Chouinard, Yvon

Legendary climber, surfer, environmentalist and founder and owner of California-based Patagonia Incorporated. In 1957, he began his career as a businessman, starting with “Schnard Equipment,” which designs and manufactures rock climbing equipment. His first creation was a phyton, but realizing that the phyton was damaging the rock wall he loved, he began to make and sell a chalk that did not damage the rock instead of the phyton.

In 1972, the apparel business began with the addition of a rugby shirt to the catalogue. As Patagonia grows more and more, Schinad decides to find his own way of doing business. From then on, he breaks away from the traditional corporate culture, makes the workplace free and enjoyable, and begins to actively use his business to find solutions to environmental crises. He developed capillary and new chilla, functional fabrics that reduce environmental damage, and for the first time introduced the concept of “layering”, establishing itself as a leading role model company in the outdoor industry in terms of design and functionality. He also introduced “EARTH TAX,” where all cotton products are made from organic cotton, and 1 percent of sales are used to preserve and restore the natural environment. Recently, it has created a “WORN WEAR program” that is responsible for lifelong repairs so that customers do not increase waste.

Currently, Schinad spends most of his time outdoors, helping to lead Patagonia. Patagonia was awarded the Entrepreneur Vision category at the UN Global Environment Awards in 2019, and is still taking the lead in protecting the wildness of nature and sports based on the mission statement “We do business to revive our home, the planet.”

From an old barn in the backyard to becoming the world’s best outdoor company,
Which achieved the impossible goal of harmonizing capitalism and ethical consciousness.
Patagonia’s Full Story of Success

Yvon Schnard, as a man who loves nature and a successful businessman, wrote this autobiographical business philosophy book, Patagonia, Surfing When the Wave Strikes to convey the lessons he learned. He spent most of the year on the rocky walls of Yosemite and was always in touch with nature, avoiding the heat in the summer and searching the high mountains of Canada and the Alps. I walked. His first creation was a phyton, but realizing that the phyton was damaging the rock wall he loved, he began to make and sell a choke that did not damage the rock instead of the phyton. In 1964, he created his first mail-order catalog, which contained a warning saying, “Don’t expect fast delivery during the climbing season.” The business grew steadily, and in 1972, the apparel business began with the addition of rugby shirts to the catalog. As his colleagues grew and Patagonia grew, Schinad realized he needed his own way of doing business. Schnard Equipment was a small company that designs and builds the world’s best climbing equipment for himself and his friends. No one was involved in business to make money. Finally, he decides to use the business to find and put into action a solution to the environmental crisis. Based on this belief, Shenard developed functional fabrics that reduced environmental damage, made all cotton products from organic cotton, and paid an’Earth Tax’ that uses 1% of annual sales to preserve and restore the natural environment. Introduced.

Yvonne Schnard always tried to keep life simple, and after grasping the seriousness of the environmental problem, he reduced the consumption of material goods. When he ran Patagonia, he did not give up principles for money. As a result, he won the hearts of consumers with beautiful products that can be worn for a long time without going out of fashion, and achieved unprecedented success by practicing the goal of revitalizing the earth. He has brilliantly demonstrated that inconsistent values ​​such as work and life, profit-seeking and social responsibility, business expansion and environmental protection can coexist. And how it was possible was fully disclosed in this book.

Look forward to the 7th generation and grow only at a sustained pace!
8 secrets of success in Patagonia, which grew by 25% in every two recessions

All of Patagonia’s products reflect the common philosophy of ‘If it’s not the best, we don’t make it.’ All products must be required one by one, and to increase sales, we do not make 20 types of pants with the same function, and we do not advertise artificial products because customers’ trust cannot be bought with advertising costs. Patagonia’s consistent management policy is to grow ‘naturally’ by making functional and simple products that can be used for a long time without going out of fashion.

In the late 1980s, Patagonia had a turnover of $1 billion. Yvon Schinad, who started his business unpretentiously not to make money, but to make equipment for his own use, followed his usual way of success. He hired more employees, CEOs from MBAs, and increased producers and traders. However, in 1991, the US economy fell into a recession, and Patagonia also faced a crisis of sharp declines in sales and stockpiling. Shocked after hearing a renowned management consultant who went to find the solution to “sell the company and create a non-profit environmental foundation”, Yvon Schinad began to ponder with his colleagues why Patagonia should continue to do business.

Schnard and his colleagues all agreed that “a billion dollar company is good, but it doesn’t mean anything if we make a product that we can’t be proud of.” They said, “Patagonia is a company created by people who love nature and is rooted in their free thoughts, independent beliefs and attitude values. Making the best products we will use ourselves and protecting the nature we love is our top priority”, shared a clear sense of purpose, further strengthened the management philosophy, and reorganized the business.

And in 2008, the second recession came. Consumers became very conservative during the financial crisis and stopped buying trendy items. Instead, they paid more for Patagonia’s products that were practical, versatile and durable. As a result, we were able to avoid the crisis, but rather, we were able to achieve greater results by growing more than 25%.

Yvon Schinad, based on his experience of overcoming the recession, realized that in any crisis, in order to make the right decisions, a philosophy that runs through the entire business is necessary. In 『Patagonia, Surfing When the Waves Hit,』, Yvon Schnard founded the Schnard Equipment in an old barn in the backyard and made Patagonia the world’s best outdoor company.The eight management philosophy, design, production, distribution, It is the result of a detailed and systematic arrangement of marketing, finance, human resources, management, and environmental philosophy.

In this book, Yvonne Schinard finds a model of management and sustainability not in the American business world, but in the American Iroquois Indians, who look forward to the seventh generation. The Iroquois are said to have included representatives of the next seven generations in the tribal decision-making process. This book, which throws a heavy message to look forward to the 7th generation and grow only at a sustainable speed, is called a management textbook by Silicon Valley CEOs, and has become a must-read for entrepreneurs in the era of the environment. It is considered one of the most influential books.

Why are millennials around the world enthusiastic about Patagonia?
People who love nature gather to use business for the planet

An advertisement is posted in the New York Times during Black Friday, the annual event with the largest sale of the year in the United States. Paradoxically, the ad, encouraging consumers not to buy its own, with a ridiculous copy of “Don buy this jacket,” draws attention to Patagonia’s environmental philosophy. made.

Patagonia has consistently practiced environmental protection based on its mission statement, “We do business to revive our home, the planet.” After internal evaluation revealed that cotton is the most damaging material to the environment, it decided to make all cotton products from organic cotton from 1996. In the process, he had to face tremendous financial difficulties, but through this bold move, the use of organic cotton for the first time in the outdoor industry has influenced more companies to fulfill their social responsibilities. Patagonia also provides free repair services through its own “Worn Wear program”. In order to slightly slow the cycle in which the product is produced, consumed, and discarded, it is encouraged to mend and wear it for as long as possible rather than consuming a new product.

Patagonia has been reborn as a brand loved by millennials who aim to consume value through environmental protection. However, Patagonia would not have been so much loved if the purpose of all these steps was to pursue profit. The biggest reason Patagonia has a strong enthusiast, unlike other brands, is because of its extraordinary sincerity, such as consistently donating 1% of its total annual sales to environmental organizations for the planet. Patagonia, surf when the waves hit, contains a more sincere voice of Patagonia. Through this book, Yvonne Schinard proposes a blueprint for the next 7 generations by appealing for participation in environmental protection from all walks of life, including businesses, governments, and consumers. Today, when all kinds of diseases and environmental pollution have emerged as problems that cannot be ignored anymore, the message of this book will come with a greater resonance.

My favorite thing about entrepreneurship is, “If you want to know what an entrepreneur is, study delinquent youth.” Delinquent youth say this through action. “This is really fucking fucking. I’ll do it my way.” I really didn’t want to be a businessman, so I needed good reasons to be a businessman. Fortunately, there was something I never wanted to miss even if I expanded my business. Work is always to be fun. On the way to work, I am excited and have to jump up the stairs two at a time. Dress freely as you please, and be surrounded by colleagues who even work barefoot. With flexible work, you should be able to surf when the waves are good, ski when it snows, stay at home and take care of your children when they are sick. The distinction between work and play and family should be blurred. The creative management that abandons the existing rules and makes my own system work gave me great satisfaction.
— Among 「History」

Function-oriented designs are usually minimal. As Brown’s head of design Dieter Rams argues, “good design is minimal design.” Complexity is a sure sign that a functional need has not been addressed. Take the difference between a 1960s Ferrari and a Cadillac, for example. Ferrari’s sleek lines were suitable for the purpose of high performance. Cadillac didn’t have a functional goal itself. The Cadillac had only tremendous horsepower, no steering wheel, no suspension, no torque, no aerodynamics, no brakes to match. If you don’t worry about the function, there is nothing to do with design. The car had the comfort and power as if the living room was moved over the highway to the golf course. In this way, the basic, terrible shape, with fins running at the back and bulging at the front, was added with all sorts of metal ornaments that were just plain and useless. When functionality doesn’t serve as a guideline for design, the imagination runs wild. If it is designing a monster, a plausible work will come out.
— From “Product Design Philosophy”

Most importantly, our source is the smithy that makes the world’s best climbing equipment. The beliefs, attitudes, and values ​​of independent climbers and surfers who were working there became the foundation of Patagonian culture, and from that culture a single image, that is, an image of authentic and high-quality products made by those who use them themselves. . Our image has evolved to encompass the culture of a new generation of climbers, trail runners, anglers and surfers who strive to create the best outdoor apparel in the world. At its core, there is a belief to protect the wildness of nature and sports. Our employees continued to uphold certain values ​​and beliefs that were inherent in the upstart companies in the 1950s, while attracting another. The will to take a strong position on environmental issues.
— From 「Marketing Philosophy」

We never wanted to be a big company. We want to be the best company, and we strive to be the best small company rather than the best conglomerate. To do this, you must exercise self-control. The growth of one part of the company can be sacrificed for the growth of another part. It is also important to know clearly what the limitations of this’experiment’ are, and keep in mind that the faster we expand beyond those limits, the faster the type of company we want to disappear, and live up to those limits.
— From 「Financial Philosophy」

Remember. Work should be fun. We value our employees who live a rich and balanced life. We have flexible working hours, and since the days of running a forge, we closed our workshops and went surfing whenever a 2-meter wave came. Our policy is to ensure flexible working at all times, as long as it does not negatively affect others. People who are striving to surf don’t plan to go surfing next Tuesday at 2pm, but go surfing when the waves, tides and winds are perfect. Skiing goes when there is no moisture in powder snow. In order not to miss a good time, you should create a working environment where you can go immediately. This kind of thinking has become a policy of free choice of working hours under the name of’surf when the waves hit.’
— From 「HR Philosophy」

The notion of a company’s natural growth helps us keep it as small as we can afford. I think it is ideal to have 100 or fewer people working in one place to ensure the best communication and avoid bureaucracy. This is in line with the fact that democracy works well in a small society where people feel personal responsibility. The smaller Sherpa (Himalayan tribe, who does things like climbing guides and carrying luggage-or Inuit (a tribe living in northern Canada, Greenland, Alaska, etc.) There is no need to hire. Everyone takes care of community problems. No need for police. It is difficult to have an evil mind under pressure from colleagues. The most efficient size of the city is, like Santa Barbara, Auckland and Florence, with all the cultures and amenities of the city, but still has a controlled population of 250,000 to 350,000.
— From 「Business Philosophy」

One of the hardest things for companies to do is to investigate the environmental impact of the most successful products and, if they adversely affect the environment, change the product or remove it from the shelf. Imagine you are the owner of a company that makes mines. You are the best employer, giving people jobs and giving them all kinds of benefits. But I’ve never thought about what mines really do. One day you go to Bosnia, Cambodia, or Mozambique, and see innocent people crippled and realize, “Mine mines do this!” Now you know what the product really does. In this state, whether to quit or continue the mine (cigarette, fast food) business? Patagonia has also begun to search for our “land mines”.
— From 「Environmental Philosophy」

We all know that the current global economy, based on constant consumption and abandonment, is destroying the planet. We are the sinners. We are consumers who “use up and destroy”. We don’t need it, but we keep buying things we want. There seems to be no satisfaction for us. Looking at the consequences of an economic system that boasts cutting-edge technology, but with high risk and harm, many people are questioning the maniacal consumer lifestyle. I’m not saying to reject all technology. It is to return to the appropriate skill level and pursue a simpler life. — Among 「Epilogue」

Bad Blood: Secrets and Lies in a Silicon Valley Startup

John Carreyrou

He is also a journalist specializing in exploration reports for the Wall Street Journal, which has won the Pulitzer Prize twice. He graduated from Duke University’s Department of Political Science in 1994 and joined the Wall Street Journal in 1999. At the end of 2015, Carrie-Loo begins to question the state-of-the-art startup “Teranos,” founded by Elizabeth Holmes. The media and many prominent Americans alike have been busy praising Terranos and the young CEO, but Carrie-Loo managed to uncover the scams of Terranos after persistently covering all kinds of hindrances. With this remarkable achievement that saved many lives, Carrie-Loo won the’George Polk Award’ in the financial reporting category, the Gerard Robb Best Report Award in the excellent corporate and financial reporting category, and the’Barlet & Steel Silver’ in the corporate exploration report category. Awarded. Currently he lives in Brooklyn with his wife and three children.

Second Steve Jobs or Bill Gates?
The genius that Silicon Valley longed for was born!
Elizabeth Holmes, 20, who dropped out of Stanford University in 2003, founded Terranos, a high-tech medical technology startup. He told her that she had developed a portable software system capable of diagnosing about 200 diseases with just a few drops of blood collected from her fingers, and whether her professors and other people from all walks of life resemble her adoring fans. . By the beginning of 2015, Terranos became one of the best startup companies in Silicon Valley, and its corporate value soared to a whopping 10 trillion won.

“You can do hundreds of health tests with just one drop of blood at home!” Terranos’ catchphrase was truly a revolution. In particular, the words of founder Elizabeth Holmes to save people by finding and predicting diseases inexpensively and conveniently were sublimely accepted by Americans suffering from expensive medical expenses. Here, Elizabeth Holmes, CEO, who combines her distinctive speech, aggressive yet powerful leadership, and beautiful appearance, was not at all lacking to emerge as a star in an instant. That way, she became the second influential person wearing the billboards Bill Gates and Steve Jobs, and numerous media hailed that this diagnostic method would save many lives by bringing unimaginable time and cost savings.

The unstoppable rise and the suspicions that have been turned away
There seemed to be no obstacles to stop Terranos’ rise, not only with large pharmacies and supermarket chains that owned thousands of stores in the United States alone, such as Walgreen and Safeway, as well as the U.S. military contracts with Terranos. In addition, authoritative figures and investors such as Rupert Murdoch, Henry Kissinger and George Schulz continued to pour out money to ignite Elizabeth Holmes’ success story. But this “blessed skill” didn’t exist, and all the sweet promises were scams!

It was John Carrielu, a journalist for The Wall Street Journal, who first sensed the suspicion and began to gather the information. Carrie-Loo recalls an interview with Elizabeth Holmes in The New Yorker, which he had just read after receiving a phone call from a doctor who runs a medical blog.

“When you do chemistry, a chemical reaction takes place, and when you chemically interact with a sample to form a signal, you produce results. The results will be reviewed by certified laboratory personnel.”

Her answer to the question of how the Terranos diagnostic device works is not a statement from a company founder with advanced science and technology that someone in the industry can compare to a’time machine’, rather than a high school student taking a chemistry class. It was more of an ambiguous and ridiculous groping.

How could Elizabeth Holmes fool the world’s best investors?
Carrie-Loo, a proven journalist in the field of exploration that already won two Pulitzer Prizes at the time, is based on interviews with about 160 courageous whistleblowers, including 60 employees, and the various flights committed by Elizabeth Holmes and the company’s executives. Begins to dig through the evidence for

The results were amazing. For many years, Holmes has been hiding the fact that Terranos’ technology has not only been seriously flawed, but has been secretly using another company’s device because it is so inaccurate that it cannot be used. Then, whenever employees raised concerns, they were fired on the spot and forced everyone to sign a confidentiality pledge not to mention anything about Terranos. Teranos, rolling in delusions and intimidation, deceived customers, customers, and even state institutions, and developed a bond of lies.

A more exciting revelation than a crime thriller!
Surprisingly, there are many moments in which laughter will burst in this bitter story. Elizabeth Holmes, who admired Steve Jobs, scouted her former iPhone staff to resemble him, mimicking Jobs’ famous outfits and everyday life. Wearing black turtlenecks and black pants, the blatant “copying” that was enough to eat the same food all day long later turned into laughter for many.

In addition, it is surprising that he was obsessed with security enough to suspect paranoia, and that only the representative himself, in order to monopolize information, banned communication between departments at all. For this reason, many employees testified that each department at Terranos can only know the field it is in charge of, but it is impossible to test the system itself.

Lies come with many secrets. ‘Surveillance’ based on security doesn’t stop there, not only prohibiting external leakage of information, but also finding forwarding of business emails to employees’ personal emails, eliminating all evidence in advance. It was close to a borrowed dictatorship. When John Carrieloo begins to ask questions about this instinct, Terranos uses his fortunes and personal connections to threaten the best law firms in the United States, and even watch and follow dizziness.
However, Carrie-Loo and The Wall Street Journal, armed with a belief in justice and skillfulness, were able to report the dangerous scams of Terranos for the first time without surrendering to all kinds of threats. By early 2017, Terranos’ corporate value had reached zero, and in March 2018, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission prosecuted Holmes for committing “a sophisticated fraudulent practice over the years.”

A great decision and feat that saved countless people who could have lost their lives because of a fake medical device!
Some readers may have heard the word “vaporware.” A term originating in the early 1980s, it refers to a phenomenon in which a new product is announced in advance in the IT field, attracting attention, and then it takes many years to actually be released, or it cannot be released in the end. This strategy, which hides the actual development situation and hype the product to secure funding, and eventually hopes the development to catch up with reality, is still accepted in the IT field.

However, as the author emphasizes, the biggest problem was that Terranos was a company that made medical devices that could influence people’s health and even their lives. In that respect, not only reporter Carrieru, but also the employees who testified at the risk of personal threats and related industry people are all heroes who saved countless lives. In particular, considering the fact that the Terranos test was scheduled to begin at Walgreen’s 8,000 stores near the time of the release, it would not be unreasonable to feel the fear of standing upright.

At first, Chenak caught him because he knew nothing. But Mosley, convinced that Shenock was hiding something from her, continued to pursue her. Then Schenak gradually opened her mind and confided that the blood testing system Elizabeth calls “Thera North 1.0” did not always work successfully. It was an uncertain gamble whether it actually worked. There are times when it works and produces results, but there are many times when it doesn’t.
It was the first news for Mosley. Mosley believed that the system was stable. That’s because it always seemed to work when investors visited.

Elizabeth hoped that she would have the technology to perform all her tests with just a single drop of blood taken by pricking the patient’s fingertips. So obsessed with the idea, Elizabeth was even frightened by the fact that her staff displayed the Terra North logo in red Hershey Kisses chocolate at her public job fair. Hershey Kisses chocolate symbolized a small amount of blood, and she was angry that Elizabeth said she was too big for Kisses chocolates to convey the amount of blood she thought she thought.

With Wall Green and Safeway as her distribution partners, Elizabeth suddenly faced a problem she caused herself. It was that she had promised her two companies that they could perform hundreds of tests with small blood samples. But she was actually able to run only immunoassay tests that use antibodies to measure substances in the blood with Edison. Immunoassay tests included only general tests, such as tests that measure vitamin D or detect prostate cancer. But she needed completely different experimental techniques for other routine blood tests that measure cholesterol or blood sugar.

Elizabeth and Daniel ignored the email. She thought she had reached her ethical milestone, eight years after joining Terra North. It was okay when a company tried to solve a problem with a product by voluntarily receiving blood from employees and their families during the research and development process, but launching the product in the Walgreen store was not even approved for a research or experimental machine to the public It meant exposing it as it is. She was an unacceptable problem for Anzali. So she decided to resign from her.

The phone rang before Tyler even reached the car. It was Tyler’s mother, and her voice seemed urgent.
“Stop what you’re trying to do right now!” Her mother begged.
Tyler replied to her mother that it was already too late. He had already decided to leave, and had already signed his resignation documents.
“It’s not like that. I just spoke to your grandfather. Her grandfather said that Elizabeth called and said that if you tried to keep revenge on her, you would eventually lose.”

But what Alan was more worried about than his personal responsibility was that the patients were at risk. Allen described two nightmare situations that an incorrect blood test result can cause. If the result is false positive, the patient may have to undergo unnecessary medical procedures. It is even more dangerous if it is a false negative result. Patients in serious condition may not be diagnosed properly and eventually die.
As I hang up the phone, I felt the joy I felt whenever I grabbed a huge scoop. So I had to remind myself that this was just the first step in a lengthy process. There were still many problems to understand, and above all, confirmation was needed. No matter how solid the source of the information is, it is impossible for a newspaper to publish an article by listening to only one anonymous informant.

“2030” How Today’s Biggest Trends Will Collide and Reshape the Future of Everything

Mauro F. Guillén

He is a global expert in global trends and international business strategy. He is currently a professor of international business administration at the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania. He received a PhD in Sociology from Yale University in the United States and a PhD in Political Economy from the University of Oviedo in Spain. His research on how changes in the population and economy affect the development of technology and vice versa is considered to show the most original steps.

Based on such rigorous research, his lectures showing the flow of wealth and power in the world were attended by more than 100,000 people at COURSERA. In addition, more than 2,000 students were gathered in the recently launched online course on the Corona 19 pandemic, ‘Epidemics, Natural Disasters, Geopolitics: Managing Global Business and Uncertainty.’ He has contributed to the New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, and The Economist, appears on NPR, CNBC, and CNN, and is also an advisor to various companies and organizations.

『2030 』 is a collection of research on the world 10 years later. It predicts the world of 2030 by looking at how the huge currents today affect companies, workers, and consumers from various angles.

“Why 2030?”
“It is a critical point. It is a time when all these waves of change are predicted to aggregate and explode.”
The next 10 years when the central axis moves and the world order is reorganized,
What should we do in a completely new and unfamiliar situation?

Which country will lead the next revolution of the 4th industrial revolution? How will the decline in the birth rate and the aging population go hand in hand with Corona 19? What opportunities are hidden between the millennials born in the digital age and the silver generation, the world’s largest consumer group? How can cities, which are growing rapidly in size and number, overcome climate change and polarization?
『2030 Axis Transformation』 shows how changes in progress affect each other and create a new world. Professor Mauro Guillen Wharton School, a world-renowned expert in global trends and international business strategy, predicts that the world will pass a critical critical point in 2030, when major megatrends in the fields of population, society, economy and technology converge.

The familiar world is rapidly disappearing from a new and perplexing reality driven by new laws. Without us realizing it, in most countries, the older population will outnumber the younger population, and women will own more property than men. The middle class market in Asia will be bigger than the US and Europe combined. We will also be surrounded by more industrial robots than factory workers, more computers than human brains, more sensing devices than human eyes, and more diverse currencies than the number of countries. That is the world of 2030. (Page 10)

Maybe the time left for us is less than 10 years. This is because the Corona 19 pandemic that has recently hit the world amplifies and accelerates change. How soon the shock and confusion that will come will affect our lives and work, and if we cannot see where the new wealth and power will move, anyone can be eliminated in an instant. Based on scientific research and empirical examples, this book vividly portrays the world 10 years from now and points out key divergences. This book shows the dangers and opportunities for a new beginning, and suggests strategies to overcome an uncertain future.

What changes are going on now that will last and what will disappear?
Revealing the fundamental forces that create the future by crossing economics, geopolitics, and sociology!

▶’The center of the world economy is moving from the Atlantic to Africa and India.’ Currently, when a newborn baby is born in developed countries, nine are born in emerging industrial and developing countries such as China, India and Africa. If this trend continues, in 2030, South Asia, including India, has the largest population in the world, followed by Africa and East Asia. In addition, a dual revolution between agriculture and industry is taking place in Africa, driving economic growth. Amid these changes, emerging middle classes in China, India and Africa are setting new standards for the market as consumers, producers and investors.

By 2030, the size of middle-class consumers in emerging industrial markets will be more than five times that of the United States, Europe, and Japan, and more than double that calculated from 2020. It is not long before we will see the activities of the Wang family in China, the Xing family in India, or the Mwanggi family in Africa, not the Simpsons. … … Major products around the world will be made not to reflect the tastes of American consumers, but to the aspirations of the middle class in developing countries.

▶’People over 60 enjoy the most productive and vibrant life on the planet.’ Older people are more likely to become adopters of new technologies ahead of millennials. “Grandpa/Grandma Iron Man” equipped with a mechanical exoskeleton goes to work with young people. In his spare time, he uses virtual reality equipment to go around famous tourist spots with his friends. Due to the nature of the life cycle, they prefer to use the subscription service instead of purchasing consumer goods, and rent an extra room or car through the sharing platform and earn additional income. As millennials enter their retirement period in 2040 and this trend intensifies, the conventional dichotomy of generation and age quickly disintegrates.

Contrary to popular belief, millennials are not a fast-growing consumer base globally. In fact, there is another generation where consumption is increasing rapidly. Now they own at least half of the world’s assets, and in the United States they make up more than 80 percent. These are the generations over 60.

▶’Women are reborn as beings that dominate the world.’ The era when men owned and managed most of their wealth and power is coming to an end, and more and more women are advancing into the economic, political, and social fields to rise to the top. In Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia, countries that break through existing discrimination and actively utilize women’s labor force are growing rapidly. As women become richer than men, the asset market is also reorganized according to their spending and investment tendencies. Entrepreneurs and politicians who don’t understand women’s preferences and choices lose their place.

“Women once again try their luck, men once again take risks.” Your attitude to risk affects most options, including spending and saving. It also affects the types of investments you think will help you meet your economic goals. The argument that there would have been no financial crisis in 2008 if there were Lehman’Sisters’ rather than Lehman’Brothers’ is by no means a false story.

▶ “Billions of computers, sensing devices and robots surround us.” Nanotechnology and 3D printing provide a way to tackle the ecological crisis in urban areas where 60 percent of the world’s population lives. E-books are used to educate Africa’s growing population from a splendid resurrection. Cooperative consumption and asset sharing through the Internet solves the problem of resource scarcity and creates a new social class. Blockchain technology helps them divide and trade everything they want, from tangible and intangible property to jobs.

Today’s changes, from virtual reality to 3D printing and from artificial intelligence to nanotechnology, would be exaggerated when compared to the Cambrian explosion. But these new technologies offer hope that they can tackle the tough challenges of poverty, disease, environmental destruction, climate change and social isolation. It is also creating a new class of young entrepreneurs with foresight.

▶’Finally, Corona 19 will advance the future.’ In the recession, people postpone childbirth even more. Enterprises and factories accelerate the automation and intelligence of the production process. Isolation requires rapid adaptation to the digital environment and advanced technology. The polarization in income, education, and health issues intensifies. We can face future challenges earlier than we think.

All these new trends are reinforcing and adapting to the situation threatened by the coronavirus is unfolding every day before our eyes. The declining birth rate, new dynamics between generations, and new technological trends and trends are being strengthened and accelerated thanks to the pandemic. We have to look at the core of a really important problem. … … This is because such changes or trends will become an irreversible trend for the remaining 10 years and change our lives.

“The pessimist finds difficulty in every opportunity, and the optimist finds opportunity in every difficulty.”
Preoccupy new opportunities and wealth with a broader reading of the flow of change!

Tata Motors, a world-class automobile company in India, has launched the “Tata Nano,” a compact compact car worth 2 million won, targeting the emerging middle class in the country. As the economy developed and income levels rose, people thought they would ride cars instead of motorcycles. However, people turned away from “Tata Nano”. “When I go to play with my friends or go to a decent seat, I would rather stay at home if the car is “Tata Nano”.” Young consumers tried to get imported cars such as Suzuki, Hyundai, and Toyota even with debt.
“Tata Nano” failed because it did not properly read the desires of the young middle class in India. In addition to the fact that their income level has risen, if they take into account that they value the value of self-expression and are free from the frugal and practical culture of their parents’ generation, and that they envy the’Western middle class life’ seen on television and on the Internet. Would have changed.

To reach 2030, we need to open our hearts to countless new ideas. While sticking to existing beliefs and behaviors, it is easy to think of getting help to monitor the ever-increasing life expectancy, aging population, and the impact of artificial intelligence. Considering the fact that there are so many factors that move this world,’already proven thoughts’ actually means’out of date thoughts’. Therefore, in an era of constant emergence of new technologies, it is always necessary to accept new perspectives on jobs, retirement, or future problems.

The future appears only to those who see it further and larger. It is difficult to realize the potential hidden in each of the changes currently underway. Even for the millennials, which companies pay the most attention to today, if you look inside them outside of superficial generalization, you can find various subgroups defined by income, education level, gender, etc. When you break away from the fragmentary and schematic framework and try to understand the intertwined relationships broadly, you can survive in a new and unfamiliar world that you will face in 10 years. 『2030 Axis Transformation』 provides a macroscopic view of the period of great transformation by sharply digging into the links between countries, generations, classes, and technologies.

African population growth, immigrants, automation or cryptocurrencies are hitting most of the American people. These are elements of development that seem dangerous, full of challenges and threats. Of course, there is evidence, but if you are afraid, you may not be able to adapt properly to your new environment. Cortes’ example shows the lesson that we can overcome fear by looking further away. The further from the land, the more we can move towards the new horizon.